2013年5月18日 星期六

Mataerial / 3D Printing 不用支撐材料的自由曲形

Mataerial /3D Printing 不用支撐材料的自由曲形 
Mataerial by Petr Novikov, Saša Jokić, Joris Laarman Studio and IAAC

The movie's frame rate was increased up to three times to show the process more quickly.

由機械手臂為主體的3D Printer,利用塑膠擠出後立即冷卻變硬的技術
Plastic extruded from this robotic 3D printer solidifies instantly,
allowing it to draw freeform shapes in the air extending from any surface.

不同於一般的 3D Printer 需要一個水平的平台作為基礎,Mataerial 列印
Unlike normal 3D printers that require a flat and horizontal base, Mataerial 
prints with plastic that sticks to horizontal, vertical, smooth or irregular 
surfaces, without the need for additional support structures.

西班牙巴塞隆納 IaaC(Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia)
的研究生 Petr Novikov 和 Saša Jokić,他們與荷蘭的設計師 Joris Laarman
Petr Novikov and Saša Jokić from Barcelona's IaaC worked with the 
studio of Dutch designer Joris Laarman to develop the machine and system.

來產出三維的實桿,而非一般 3D Printer 緩慢由下往上建構的二維切層堆疊
The process, which the designers call "anti-gravity object modelling", is a form of 
extrusion that instantly creates chunky three-dimensional rods, rather than slowly building up two-dimensional layers like a standard 3D printer.

廣泛使用於市面上 3D Printer 的熱塑性塑料。設計師補充解釋
"One of the key innovations of anti-gravity object modelling is the use of 
thermosetting polymers instead of thermoplastics that are used in 
existing 3D printers," explained the designers.


A chemical reaction between the two components of the thermosetting polymer 
causes the material to solidify as it comes out of the nozzle, making it possible 
to print hanging curves.

The speed of extrusion is dependent on factors such as the desired thickness 
of the material, but in this example the printer produced one meter in 
approximately three minutes. 
我們最近注意到一個類似的點子,但相對是一個小上許多的尺度-3D doodles
We recently featured a similar idea on a much smaller scale – a pen that can "print" 3D doodles in mid-air. See all 3D printing on Dezeen or check out Print Shift, our one-off magazine about additivie manufacturing.

去年的這個時候,Novikov 還只是IAAC的學生,他和他的團隊建構了一組
以沙子為材料的 3D Printer。示意圖為以 Mataerial 技術所建構的展覽館
Last year Novikov was part of a team of students from the IAAC who built
 a robotic 3D printer that creates architectural structures from sand or soil.
Proposal for an outdoor pavilion printed by Mataerial

Mataerial is the result of the collaborative research between Petr Novikov, Saša Jokić from the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia (IAAC) and Joris Laarman Studio. IAAC tutors representing Open Thesis Fabrication Program provided their advice and professional expertise. During the course of the research we developed a brand new digital fabrication method and a working prototype that can open a door to a number of practical applications. The method that we call Anti-gravity Object Modeling has a patent-pending status.

Mataerial – a brand new method of additive manufacturing. This method allows for creating 3D objects on any given working surface independently of its inclination and smoothness, and without a need of additional support structures. Conventional methods of additive manufacturing have been affected both by gravity and printing environment: creation of 3D objects on irregular or non-horizontal surfaces has so far been treated as impossible. By using innovative extrusion technology we are now able to neutralise the effect of gravity during the course of the printing process. This method gives us a flexibility to create truly natural objects by making 3D curves instead of 2D layers. Unlike 2D layers that are ignorant to the structure of the object, the 3D curves can follow exact stress lines of a custom shape. Finally, our new out of the box printing method can help manufacture structures of almost any size and shape.

One of the key innovations of anti-gravity object modelling is the use of thermosetting polymers instead of thermoplastics that are used in existing 3D printers. The material is cured because of a chemical reaction between two source components with such proportion of extrusion and movement speeds that it comes solid out of the nozzle; this feature makes it possible to print hanging curves without support material.

The desired shape is created by user in CAD software and then transformed into 3d curves describing the shape which are then converted into movement paths for the robotic arm. The thickness of the printed curve can be scaled down to less than a millimeter and can be adjusted during the printing process, by changing the speed of the movement. Colors can be injected in the nozzle in CMYK mode that allows changing of the curve color throughout the printing process.

In our vision, Mataerial can be applied in different fields, from furniture and architecture manufacturing to desktop and space 3d printing.

n. 聚合物, 聚合體
【化】 多聚體; 高分子; 大分子; 聚合物
【醫】 聚合物, 聚合體

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